The introduction of the personal computer in the late 1970′s was a culture-changing shift, but introduction of a mouse-driven interface in the mid-80′s allowed computers to become mainstream. I believe that the mouseless, touch-screen interface of tablet devices such as the iPhone and the iPad is as great a leap forward, if not greater. Touch interfaces make this technology even more accessible, especially for those with “special needs.” The combination of a simpler interface, network ability, rich multimedia and portability makes the iPad2 a particularly good technology for students with special needs and their families. Below are notes from at a presentation I gave Monday evening, 2 May 2011, to the Vancouver special education PTSA. Continue reading
The end of the calendar year is a natural opportunity to catch up, evaluate past systems and make intelligent plans for the future, whether in our personal lives or business. Year-end closing often involves gathering up loose papers and filing them. Correspondence, paid bills, receipts and more: if such things don’t have a place they should. “A place for everything and everything in its place,” as the old saying has it. As importantly, every thing should have one and only one logical place it should be. End of year is a good time to check that, tidy, and confirm one has a solid plan for archiving and backup. Continue reading
Slides from a ninety-minute presentation I gave for the Non-Profit Network of Washington on “Google Docs for Non-Profits.”
One of the great advantages of using Macintosh technology is that the “computer for the rest of us” is simpler, more secure, easier to deploy and less expensive over the long term. This means that most people can make it work pretty well without expert help and that there is less money in supporting Apple technology and the Mac OS than other operating systems. Macintosh computer systems tend to grow organically and work pretty well without expert help, making for happier and more independent users. This doesn’t mean that basic IT planning can’t help to make those systems better, so below are some of the basics to consider in making an IT planning or hiring someone like me to help make your IT plan better.
The end of the calendar year is a good time to review currently available hardware, falling as it does near the end of the tax year for most businesses, and with several federal holidays for changing and configuring equipment with minimal loss of work time. In years past, Apple would announce new product at January’s MacWorld Expo, but those days are thankfully behind us now. With new products announced throughout the year, now is still a terrific time to review Apple’s current hardware line to consider what is on the horizon and whether now is the time to replace previous equipment.
Timing Purchases for New Equipment
With constant advances in computer technology over the past twenty years, it often seems as if waiting is the best strategy. With a history of better, faster and less expensive products every year, some are reluctant to buy anything, ever. Fear of buying something at full price just before it is replaced by a better and less expensive version is rational, but considering just a few factors can help to make better decisions.
Product Cycles, Useful Life and Technical Generations
Human things tend to move in cycles. Those who have been around technology appreciate this, and it is evident in the history of Apple. Technology also tends to advance in stages, and these can also be observed and anticipated.
Apple’s products can broadly be placed into major categories: hardware or software, desktops or laptops, professional or consumer, key components or peripherals. With design, production and marketing considerations, it never makes sense for Apple to update everything at once, and so each product is on its own “refresh cycle,” which can be anticipated. If you are looking to purchase a Mac Mini, one can look at the history of this product and see that a new model or set of models is announced approximately every 250 days. With the last revision in October of this year, it is reasonable to assume that the next model will be out sometime mid-year. By understanding this cycle one can then wait for new models to be announced and then decide whether to purchase that model or try to pick up the “day old bread” of the current model then, at a reduced price.
Another key thing to watch for are technical changes. Often one key technology or feature will change, creating new opportunities or making current equipment obsolete. The original RJ-11 plugs on the Macintosh keyboard, for example, were replaced by ADB, which was then replaced by the current USB standard. Old 68K chips were replaced with the PPC series, G3/G4/G5 and then Intel, as SCSI disappeared and then two flavors of FireWire behind it. These are in addition to major software changes such as the transition from OS 7.x to 8, then 9 then the various flavors of OS X. Each change in a key technology presents challenges and opportunities that are worth considering.
Although I would certainly never suggest living one’s life based on the various Apple and Mac rumor sites, appreciating generational changes can help to make wiser decisions. As importantly, it helps to appreciate Apple’s uncanny ability to make even minor product updates look much cooler and more important than they are. However shiny and sparkly Steve Jobs’ presentation may be, it never makes sense to buy a computer one does not need, except for psychological reasons such as a mid-life crisis.
How long one keeps a machine depends on a lot of things. For some it is budget, for others job function, extended warranty or support costs. As long as a machine is doing the job it needs to do, plays well with others and is productive without disruptive frustration, I generally tend not to replace it. Some video-content producers really do need a new professional machine every two years. I replace my own machines every three years or so, as AppleCare expires. I recommend that businesses plan to replace every computer workstation every five years, but also have clients who are happily running cash registers on 15-year-old machines or reading their email on original CRT iMacs over telephone modems. Make hardware decisions that are right for you.
Apple’s Product Line for December 2009
Below is a quick summary of Apple’s main product lines as of December 7, 2009. The release date for each model is noted in parenthesis, along with basic info on full retail pricing at Apple’s web site. Machines are listed in price order, from least to most expensive.
Apple Desktops: Minis, iMacs and Mac Pros
Most of my clients prefer desktops and I generally recommend Mac Mini’s for businesses and those on a budget. Families and smaller offices often prefer iMacs because they are self-contained and physically beautiful. Anyone who can avoid buying a Mac Pro or an X-Serve should, in my judgement. Unless otherwise specified, higher-priced desktops contain all features of lower-priced models and only improvements are noted here.
- $599 Mac Mini (Oct09) 2.26GHz Intel Core 2 Duo, 2GB RAM, 160GB HD, 8x DL Super-Drive
- Mac Mini (Oct09) 2.53GHz, 4GB RAM, 320GB HD
- $999 Mac Mini (Oct09) Dual 500 GB HD w 10.6 Server
- $1199 21″ iMac (Oct09) with 3.06GHz, 4GB RAM, 500GB HD
- $1499 21″ iMac (Oct09) with 1TB HD, better graphics card
- $1699 27″ iMac (Oct09)
- $1999 27″ iMac (Oct09) 2.66GHz Intel Core i5, better graphics card
- $2499 Mac Pro Quad Core (Mar09) 2.66GHz “Nehalem”, 3GB RAM, 640 GB HD, 16x DL Superdrive
- $3299 Mac Pro Eight Core (Mar09) Two 2.66GHz “Nehalem”, 6 GB RAM
- $2999 X-Serve Quad Core (Apr09) 2.66 GHz “Nehalem,” 3 GB, 160 GB, 10.6 Server
- $3599 X-Serve Eight Core (Apr09) Two 2.66 GHz “Nehalem”
Apple Portables: MacBooks and MacBook Pros
For singles and professionals (especially the self-employed) I generally recommend a portable computer, with AppleCare and a good backup strategy against catastrophic loss. An external hard drive using Time Machine is plenty, so long as you’ll plug into it at least weekly. Based on past client experiences, I am not a huge fan of the MacBook Air.
- $999 MacBook 13″ (Oct09) 2.26GHz, 2GB RAM, 250 GB HD, 8x DL SuperDrive
- $1199 13″ MacBook Pro (Jun09) 2.26GHz, 2GB RAM, 160 GB HD, 8x DL SuperDrive
- $1499 13″ MacBook Pro (Jun09) 2.53GHz, 4GB RAM, 250 GB HD
- $1699 15″ MacBook Pro (Jun09) 2.53GHz, 4GB RAM, 250 GB HD
- $1999 15″ MacBook Pro (Jun09) 2.53GHz, 4GB RAM, 320 GB HD, better graphics
- $2299 15″ MacBook Pro (Jun09) 2.66GHz, 4GB RAM, 500 GB HD, even better graphics
- $2499 17″ MacBook Pro (Jun09)
- $1499 MacBook Air (Jun09) 1.86GHz, 2GB RAM, 120 GB HD, no optical drive
- $1799 MacBook Air (Jun09) 2.13GHz, 2GB RAM, 128GB solid-state HD
Apple Handhelds & Media Players: iPhones, iPods, AppleTV
- $49 iPod Shuffle 2GB (Sep09) available in five colors, 4GB @ $49, stainless steel @ $99
- $149 iPod Nano 8GB (Sep09) available in colors, 16GB @ $179
- $199 iPod Touch (Sep09)
- $249 iPod Classic 160GB (Sep09)
- $499 iPhone 3G 8GB (Jun09)
- $599 iPhone 3GS 16 GB (Jun09) available in black or white
- $699 iPhone 3GS 32 GB (Jun09) available in black or white
- $99 Airport Express
- $179 Airport Extreme (Oct09)
- $299 1TB Time Capsule
- $499 2TB Time Capsule
- $29 “Snow Leopard” Mac OS 10.6 (Aug09)
- $49 “Snow Leopard” Mac OS 10.6 family pack
- $79 iWork 09 (Jan09) with $99 family pack available
- $79 iLife 09 (Jan09) with $99 family pack available
- $169 “Mac Box Set” w Mac OS 10.6, iWork 09 & iLife 09
- $229 “Mac Box Set” family pack
- $199 Aperture 2 (Feb08)
- $199 Final Cut Express 4 (Nov07)
- $999 Final Cut Studio 2 with FCP 6 (Apr07)
Other Software of Note
FileMaker Pro version 10 released in January of 2009 and rumors about a new version are scarce. QuickBooks 2010 was released in October of 2009, and I anticipate no updates for a year or two. New versions of both Microsoft Office and Adobe CS (Photoshop, Illustrator, In Design, etc) are expected to release mid-year 2010.
Help with Technology Planning
For help with technology planning, including business-wide data planning, documentation, maintenance and disaster recovery, please consider phoning MacRory.com at (360) 666-7679. Now may or may not be the right time for new equipment, but it is always the right time to evaluate your computer systems to see if they are doing what they should or if there is a way for them to help you save money by working more efficiently.
Rory Bowman of MacRory.com may be reached by phone at (360) 666-7679 and a one-hour intake consultation to discuss your needs is almost always free. Happy new year!
May 2010 be your best year yet.
One of the most common questions I get from users is “should I upgrade my Mac?” My first response is to note that “upgrade” is a marketing term, not a technical one, and then to clarify what exactly they mean by upgrade. Updates and upgrades are different things, and people often mean different things by both. The recent release of Windows 7 and “snow leopard” Mac OS 10.6 offers an excellent opportunity to discuss this.
Software, Hardware, Updates, Upgrades and Change
The term “upgrade” implies progress in a way that may or may always be relevant. Adding to this confusion is that most people are uncertain what the term means. It may be useful then to distinguish between and among the different things that people may refer to as upgrades, noting that not every change is an improvement.
Hardware Upgrades Involve Physical Parts
Hardware upgrades involve physical parts, and are the most obvious upgrade because they usually involve physically taking out a screwdriver and adding or changing something in the real world. Some people would consider adding a new peripheral an upgrade, but more common upgrades include replacing one part with another: replacing your 15″ CRT monitor with a 19″ LCD, for example. If you have a “tower-style” computer, it may involve adding a new PCI card for more peripheral ports, but the most common hardware upgrade by far is to replace one hard drive with a larger one, or to add more RAM.
A common question I am asked is whether or not it makes sense to upgrade to a larger hard drive or to add more RAM to a machine. In most cases, it does, and as RAM prices have dropped so radically over the past two years, I generally suggest that people who plan to keep a computer “max out” the RAM in their iMac, Mac Mini, MacBook or MacBook Pro. (Professionals who use towers for video, photo and print production may be wiser to add some RAM, then replace the machine every two or three years.) If your machine is slightly slow or running out of hard drive space, upgrading both of these will usually cost two hundred dollars or so, plus labor, if done at the same time. Adding RAM or a larger hard drive can especially help with a two or three-year-old “stock machine” that has never been upgraded, easily doubling or tripling its useful life by making it capable of running newer versions of the Mac OS.
Software Updates under Mac OS X
Since the introduction of Mac OS X, the upper-left “apple menu” has had a “Software Update…” option, which Apple uses to check periodically for minor upgrades and updates. Early on, these updates were a bit hit-and-miss, but are now generally reliable. If you hate the periodic nagging about updates, go into the System Preferences pane for Software Updates and set it to check monthly or manually as you prefer.
What the software update preference pane does is periodically log into Apple’s servers and check your Apple software against the current version at the mother ship in Cupertino. If the two don’t match, it politely tells you and invites you to download a free update. These updates are always free and are almost always “bug fixes” or minor improvements. Pretty much every time Apple introduces a new iPod or service at the iTunes store, there is an update for iTunes. If you have installed Final Cut, iWork or iLife, you will get periodic updates for those. If you are happy with their computer and how it is working, there is no need to download any of these, and indeed the software update window allows you to ignore an update by selecting it in the list and then choosing that from the “Update” menu.
Since so many updates are fairly large files, I generally recommend that people set their preferences to check for updates monthly, then actually install updates when they can be away from their machine, letting them download overnight.
Updates from the “software updates” preference pane or the apple menu are always free. Other programs and vendors, such as Adobe and Microsoft, have their own programs to periodically check for updates to their products and some programs (such as FireFox) have update-checking built in. Usually those programs have a preference to turn this “auto-update” check off if you prefer. Just be sure to check for updates every year or if you have problems.
Delta Updaters Versus “Combo” Updaters
Updaters are often classified as “delta” (small change) or “combo” updates. Delta updaters usually make small changes, such as from 10.5.7 to 10.5.8, and some programs can only be updated using a long series of combo updaters one at a time, in sequence. “Combo updaters,” by contrast, are like non-stop express buses, and can take one from 10.5.0 to 10.5.8 in a single bound. Combo updaters are usually much larger than their smaller counterparts, but more thorough and well-written. For any Mac OS X update, I always recommend taking the time to visit Apple’s web site directly and download the “combo updater,” even if it means waiting a few weeks for it to be released. Combo updaters have a long history of being both more reliable and stable than their quick-change delta counterparts.
Managing Software Updaters
A good general rule I suggest to all my clients is the creation of a special “Installer & Updater” folder somewhere on their computer, usually in the “Downloads” file or in a “Public” folder so that it is available other machines on the local network. By putting all shareware installers and updaters in one place, they are easy to find, and only need to be downloaded once. Most updaters take the form of a disk image “.dmg” file and can easily be burned to CD, DVD or even mounted across the network. By having a single place for all updates and installers, software management is much simpler. Folks with many programs or responsible for programs across many machines may also wish to create a text list or spreadsheet showing what versions of what programs are on which machines, along with installation codes. When printed, such a list is very handy to have in the file folder or box containing original CD or DVD installation discs.
Paid Software Upgrades
“Updates” to a program are generally minor, while upgrades bring larger, often major changes.
Updates to the same version of a program are always free, but “upgrades” that bring major changes are usually purchased. Sometimes a vendor such as Intuit or Adobe will offer a discount for folks making such an upgrade, but one must always pay something. The jump from Office 2001 to 2004 was such an upgrade, as was the upgrade from 2004 to 2008. Similarly for updates from Adobe CS2 to CS3 or from iWork ’08 to iWork ’09. Such paid upgrades almost always involve purchasing a physical box with installation CD or DVD’s, and it is important to save those physical parts, along with the installation codes that come with them.
Apple has always charged for full-version upgrades. In recent years, Mac OS X Jaguar 10.2 was replaced by Panther 10.3 for $129. Tiger 10.4 and Leopard 10.5 were both $129 (with a five home-computer “family pack” at $199), while 10.6 “Snow Leopard” was only thirty bucks. If you purchase a full-step upgrade as Mac OS X, it is important to save the install discs, because they are used to repair your OS or for other tasks, such as directory fixes or password recovery.
Most companies have a fairly predictable “product release cycle,” usually from 12-24 months. Both Microsoft and Adobe are expected to release new versions of their programs in 2010, and sometimes it makes sense to watch those schedules, either to purchase the new version or make sure that you can get a copy of an older version that runs on your hardware. Usually a software vendor will only support any given product one or two versions back, which can be an issue for some people when the product is marked for “end of life” or “obsolete.” Ouch!
How Long is Too Long? How Far Is Too Far?
So how long should you plan to keep your computer or a particular version of a program? That depends on what it is you do or want to do. Odds are good that your computer does everything now that it did the day you bought it, and if that is enough, great! Don’t buy a new car if a tank of gas will do. For clients who really love a particular machine (or have a machine that cannot be replaced for other reasons) I will often suggest they acquire a few “organ donors” or “parts cars” to keep in reserve for spare parts. For most folks, though, I offer the following guidelines to get the most possible life out of a given machine.
- Upgrade RAM to as much as the machine will hold
- Use external drives to move unneeded files off the boot drive
- Replace the boot drive to keep at least one third of it unused
- Add PCI cards and external drives to add functionality
- Upgrade the Mac OS no further than two versions from what shipped
If you purchased an iMac with Mac OS 10.2 Jaguar, for example, I would suggest maxing out the RAM and upgrading the hard drive, but not planning to upgrade beyond Mac OS 10.4 Tiger. Upgrading all those things will cost a small portion of the original purchase price, and probably extend the useful life of the machine two or three years. Fighting to improve its performance beyond that is simply not cost effective in most cases, as I once proved by putting $4000 worth of repairs into an $800 car.
Planning For Obsolescence and “Tech Refresh” Cycles
Modern electronics are largely designed to be disposable, which is deeply annoying. More relevant for computers, however, is the rapid expansion of technology and the increased things that we expect of our computers. Ten years ago, almost no one had high-speed Internet at home, if they had Internet at all. Today, people are watching movies on their computers and performing video chat across social networks. The performance of ten-year-old computers did not decrease, but our expectations of our computers increased appreciably.
My general suggestion for businesses is to plan to replace every new computer every five years or so. For my own business, where my laptop gets heavy use, I budget to replace equipment every three years, as the AppleCare extended warranty expires. Some low-demand servers may be five or even ten years old, but the general rule to budget a replacement every 3-5 years is a good one for almost every situation. Sometimes accountants will want to amortize machines for longer periods, but that is not realistic, and it is a nuisance to have to account for obsolete machines in a back room somewhere. You will be happier and more productive if you can budget to replace your computer at least every five years, and perhaps all software with it.
“Upgrade” Horror Stories
Buying something new is not always a good idea, and sales people may or may understand all the moving parts in any system. Mac users had some major issues with the transition from Mac OS 9 to OS X years ago, and Microsoft so badly bungled their transition from Windows XP to Vista that they effectively ended up “leapfrogging” their own major release to focus on “Windows 7″ last month, with fingers crossed. Sometimes a planned “upgrade” can create a cascade of other problems, such as when people purchased Apple computers with Intel chips that could no longer run “Classic” programs or quickly went to Snow Leopard without checking for incompatible programs or plug-ins. There are a variety of web sites such as Macintouch or the Snow Leopard Compatibility Wiki, but I generally encourage folks to wait a few weeks after any new machine or program ships to let others find the tricks and traps of the bleeding-edge shake-out cruisers. Quality assurance testing has advanced appreciably in the last ten years, but no one can foresee all possibilities, and even monkeys fall from trees.
Useful Sites for SW Updates and Hardware Upgrades
First-Tier Software Update Sites
One-stop shopping sites for versions and updates
- MacUpdate.com for a variety of programs
- VersionTracker.com also has a great list of programs
- Pure-Mac.com remains a terrific resource
Major commercial update sites, by company
- Adobe product updates
- Apple’s support downloads
- FileMaker software updaters
- Microsoft Mac downloads
- Open-source products from GetFireFox.com, Open Office and NeoOffice
Online resources for hardware upgrades and repairs
- Low End Mac machine profiles
- iFixIt.comhas terrific take-apart manuals
- Other World Computing has been a reliable supplier for years
- RamJet is my preferred vendor for memory
- iResQ.com is a terrific mail-in depot-repair facility
- PowerBook Medic also has done good work for me
Help with Computer and Technology Planning
If you would like help evaluating your current computers and technology, to come up with a better maintenance and upgrade plan, please consider phoning MacRory.com at (360) 666-7679.
We can help you make the most of what you have, eliminate redundant equipment and streamline operations to increase pleasure, decrease frustration and improve productivity. Whether that means an update, an upgrade or a redesign, this is what we have been doing since 1998.
Habitat Re-Stores Divert Used Materials for Good
For those who are not familiar, Habitat for Humanity is a charity popularized by Jimmy Carter which helps build homes for low-income families to own. As part of this they have pioneered a series of recycling centers called Re-Stores, where usable building materials are donated and diverted from the waste stream. Rather than going into landfills, these valuable materials are resold at bargain prices, the profits from these sales going to help build more homes. It is a wonderful model, and one that Martin is adapting for computer equipment.
Clark County Diverts Computers, Provides Education
Originally a waste-diversion program in Clark County, the new Upgrade Your Community component at CREAM expands the program considerably. By creating a partnership between Waste Connections, Clark County, the CIty of Vancouver, Salvation Army, Clark College and Habitat for Humanity, the new store will divert electronics and computers from the waste-stream and use the profits to offer free computer classes and facilities to the community. Part of this is a series of classes, as listed on their web site, beginning in August of 2009.
MacRory.com Classes at CREAM
A former public-school teacher, I have always been an advocate for community education, offering free and low-cost classes since 1998 through organizations such as the Portland Macintosh Users Group, the Senior Computer Learning Center, Vancouver Parks and Recreation, and more. The ability to do this on a regular basis in a dedicated facility is amazing, and I hope that many others join me in using this terrific resource. I myself plan to offer a few free classes each month, and to try and organize a “free clinic” for Mac users. As I offer more classes through this program, I shall use this page to post links to relevant files or handouts. I hope that I will see at Upgrade Your Community education center soon!
For Further Information
Upgrade Your Community Education Center
5000 East Fourth Plain Blvd, Suite E101
Vancouver, WA 98661
Links to Files MacRory Class Files
A simple place to put links to resources I shall use in my classes at Upgrade Your Community.
- Sign-up form using gDoc forms
- Linked In for Job Seekers text file, August 2009
- Internet Basics Diagram 2009, Fall 2009
- Videos on Google Docs and gDoc collaboration
- Google Docs Word Processing as a web page
- Google Docs Spreadsheets as a web page with sample form
- Google Docs Presentations
- Google Apps for Non-Profits
- Social Networking for Small Business